Line Stage Articles



Articles page

These articles are excerpts from articles published in the February and March 2003 and May and November 2004 issues of audioXpress Magazine. They follow the journey  from a simple classic transformer output line stage to the development of the differential Single-Ended-Triode bridged parafeed version of the Line Stage. 



Chapter 1 It all started simply enough - I needed a new line stage for my own use. On this first leg of the journey I developed a single-ended transformer output line stage. 


Chapter 2 I was learning a lot and having fun so I decided to continue experimenting. The question now was, which way to go? The obvious candidates were differential  push-pull or single-ended parafeed. I chose single-ended parafeed.


Chapter 3 I have found that it is a good idea to build a prototype of a circuit on a perforated board before etching the printed circuit board. You can easily mount PC components and instead of land patterns, you have the flexibility of point-to-point wiring that is easy to change if needed. I think of them as a small chassis.



Chapter 4 I had pretty much taken  the SET Line Stage to the limit of its capability. While the result was excellent, I knew that I could improve on it. I had heard several push-pull line stages that sounded pretty good so I wanted to experiment with a differential topology.


Chapter 5 I had finished the development of the Line Stage and it was time to create a power supply. I had used a standard choke-input power supply for most of the development. That supply was okay but I wanted something special to support the superb sonic qualities of the Line Stage.